Writers produce works of fiction and non-fiction. They may work on:
A writer may specialise in one field or work across several formats. Depending on the area in which they work, a writer's job may involve:
Writers spend much of their time working alone. They may need to seek an agent to promote and sell their work. Once their work is accepted for publication they may liaise with commissioning editors, script editors and publishers.
While they may use pen and paper for their initial drafts, writers are expected to submit finished work using a computer. Some use specialised software - for example, to set screenplays in the format required by TV producers.
Most writers are self-employed and work from home. They are generally free to set their own writing hours, although they may need to fit this in around other part-time employment.
Writers who take on commissioned work may need to work long hours to complete pieces to deadline.
Most published writers earn less than £5,000 a year from their writing. After establishing a track record, a writer may earn between approximately £5,000 and £35,000 a year.
Writers work in all areas of the UK. While most publishers and producers are based in cities, particularly London, the role generally allows writers to work from home.
Most writers are motivated by the drive to write and the satisfaction they gain from engaging in a creative activity. To be commercially successful, they must combine this creativity with determination and an awareness of other written work in their chosen field.
For a few prominent writers the financial rewards can be great. However, few writers achieve mass-market publication. Of those who do, many need to support their writing through other work - either through a related job, such as advertising or teaching creative writing, or by taking an unrelated part-time job.
Work is seldom advertised. Most writers make speculative approaches, sending samples of their work to publishers. Book publishers, in particular, tend to accept submissions only via a literary agent, and even agents take on only a tiny proportion of the writers who approach them.
Competition is extremely fierce. As so much unsolicited work is submitted, it is vital to ensure that work is as professional as possible, and targeted carefully. Publications such as the Writers' and Artists' Yearbook list publishers, producers, agents and publications.
Some organisations and publications make periodic calls for submissions, and the BBC writersroom project encourages radio and TV scripts from new writers. Again, there is intense competition.
Increasingly, new writers are publishing sections of their own work on the internet. Work with commercial potential can sometimes be spotted by publishers in this way.
There is no set entry route. While a high standard of English is essential, academic qualifications are generally less important than flair, originality and experience. To develop as a writer it is often considered necessary to read and write a great deal.
Many writers have a degree. This may be in a relevant subject, such as English literature, creative writing, journalism or performing arts, or in an unrelated topic.
Obtaining early experience can help develop skills. It may be possible to contribute to student newspapers or radio, or join a local writers' group or drama club. Online writers' communities also offer a chance to share work.
Writing courses are available to help aspiring writers to develop specific skills and get a more objective view of their own writing. These range from short, specialised training courses in fields such as screenwriting or children's fiction, to full-time degrees in creative writing, scriptwriting and journalism.
A growing number of universities and colleges also offer Masters degrees in creative writing. Some established authors have benefited from such courses. However, most creative writing graduates do not go on to become published writers.
Some short courses are residential. There are also distance-learning courses. It is important to find out as much as possible about the course content and the tutors' backgrounds, to ensure it will be relevant and valuable.
Laboratory technicians carry out routine laboratory tests and perform a variety of technical support functions to help scientists, technologists and others with their work. They can work in research and development, scientific analysis and testing, education and manufacturing.
They are employed in a wide range of scientific fields which affect almost every aspect of our lives.
A writer must have:
To progress, writers need to keep marketing themselves and promoting their work. Initial success in having work published or produced can be a stepping stone to getting further work commissioned.
Authors may apply for grants that allow them further time to write. Publishers may put authors forward for literary prizes, which can lead to a higher profile as well as financial rewards.
Published writers are often expected to promote their work by giving talks and media interviews, and appearing at literary festivals.
BBC writersroom, Grafton House,
379-381 Euston Road, London NW1 3AU
National Association of Writers in Education (NAWE),
PO Box 1, Sheriff Hutton,
York YO60 7YU
Tel: 01653 618429
The Poetry Society,
22 Betterton Street, London WC2H 9BX
Tel: 020 7420 9880
The Society of Authors,
84 Drayton Gardens, London SW10 9SB
Tel: 020 7373 6642
Writernet, Cabin V, Clarendon Buildings,
25 Horsell Road, London N5 1XL
Tel: 020 7609 7474
Writers' Guild of Great Britain,
15 Britannia Street, London WC1X 9JN
Tel: 020 7833 0777
Additional resources for job seekers and those already in a job.