A music conductor is the person that leads an orchestra, chorus, opera company, ballet company or other musical group. The conductor sets the pace of the music so that all the performers can follow the same rhythm. He or she needs to understand all aspects of the music, including tempo, musical pitch and the overall balance of harmonies.
Conductors are needed for a large range of musical situations, including:
This might mean taking overall control of a production, or working under an artistic director of an opera, play or musical. Conductors often combine conducting with other duties, including performing and teaching. But typically, the conductor will have overall responsibility for:
Conductors often specialise in a particular musical genre, such as the work of contemporary composers or early music.
There are no set working hours for conductors. As well as taking part in rehearsals and performances, many combine conducting with teaching and training performers. Evening and weekend working is common.
There can be a lot of travel required, within the UK and abroad, as conductors will accompany their musical group on performance tours or competitions. This may require staying away from home for lengthy periods. Highly acclaimed conductors receive engagement bookings many months, sometimes years, in advance.
Conductors will often spend many hours at home preparing for performances by studying scores and exploring new works.
Conductors may work in a variety of environments, from indoor concert halls, theatres and recording studios, churches and cathedrals, to outdoor venues such as parks and the gardens of stately homes. They can also work in schools and other educational settings.
There is no formal salary structure for conductors and annual income depends on the number and type of performances given. Payment can range from receiving travel expenses only, up to huge fees for top international conductors.
Established professional conductors usually have an agent who negotiates fees on their behalf with concert promoters and orchestra managers.
A conductor starting out can earn around £360 per concert.
Most conductors earn around £1,000 per concert, but fees vary enormously between £50 and £3,500 per concert.
The most acclaimed conductors may earn even greater sums.
Conductors can work for large professional and amateur orchestras and choirs, in cathedrals and churches, for musical shows in the theatre, on TV and film productions and for music colleges. Permanent jobs for conductors are very limited, and most work on a freelance basis.
Accomplished musical ability is vital and competition for conductor jobs is very strong. Many vacancies and opportunities are not advertised, so it is essential to network and make good contacts with other people in the music industry.
The majority of conductors train first in an instrument, usually the piano. Many then work for a while as répétiteurs or as assistants to conductors. This involves providing musical accompaniment through rehearsals, and coaching the singers, whilst also observing the established conductor at work. Entrants, even for these posts, would usually work on a voluntary basis initially, to demonstrate their capabilities.
Orchestra vacancies worldwide are advertised on www.orchestraljobs.com.
The Incorporated Society of Musicians (ISM) website has lots of useful information about careers with music.
Due to competition, most conductors have a degree plus a postgraduate qualification in music. These qualifications are offered at both university and specialist music colleges. Entry requirements for a degree course vary, but generally are a minimum of five GCSE's (A*-C) and two A levels, or equivalent qualifications.
Applicants to music courses may have to undertake an audition and will usually need to have studied a musical instrument, often the piano, to at least grade 7 or 8. Candidates should check exact entry requirements with individual institutions.
After studying a degree course, most aspiring conductors go on to complete a postgraduate course in conducting at a music college, perhaps abroad at one of the European or American academies. Here it may be possible to work as a deputy or assistant conductor to get the experience and contacts necessary to carve out a successful career.
Some of the music colleges also offer summer schools, seminars and short courses, which can provide valuable experience and training.
Trainee posts and professional scholarships may be offered by organisations, such as the BBC and the Royal Opera House in London. These students will have usually achieved a high level of conducting skill through their postgraduate work and studies.
Most conductors spend their entire professional career developing their craft. They are continually studying musical theory and the history of music, as well as practical aspects of conducting. Much of this study is driven by personal motivation and interest, and is not part of any formal training.
The Association of British Choral Directors and Young Choirs organise regular seminars.
Practising conductors are listed on the ISM register of performers and composers.
Laboratory technicians carry out routine laboratory tests and perform a variety of technical support functions to help scientists, technologists and others with their work. They can work in research and development, scientific analysis and testing, education and manufacturing.
They are employed in a wide range of scientific fields which affect almost every aspect of our lives.
Music conductors should:
The ultimate goal for most is to become a principal conductor, but this requires a strong portfolio of recognised work. Entering competitions can be a way of getting skills noticed by the right people.
Progression for a conductor is dependent on constantly widening their experience, stretching themselves personally and establishing a strong reputation.
Association of British Choral Directors
Association of British Orchestras,
20 Rupert Street, London W1D 6DF
Tel: 020 7287 0333
Incorporated Society of Musicians (ISM),
10 Stratford Place, London W1C 1AA
Tel: 020 7629 4413
The International Artist Managers'
Association (IAMA), 23 Garrick Street,
Covent Garden, London WC2E 9BN
Tel: 020 7379 7336
60-62 Clapham Road,
London SW9 OJJ
Tel: 020 7582 5566
Additional resources for job seekers and those already in a job.